The industrial revolution happened in the past whenever a new form of energy was created or formed. From the very first one till this day, we have seen precisely four industrial revolutions committed to 4 aspects. After a revolution is done, we jump from one orbit to another. We step up into the world of profit maximization. First IR was done when steam energy was introduced, as the others were introduced with the technological advancement to digitize the industry, ensure the maximum profit and utilize the resources.
4th Industrial Revolution: Addressing Problems with digitized solutions
Digitalization in the industry connects the dots and provides several solutions and a vast pool of opportunities as new technologies emerge. With the 4th industrial revolution, the industry was introduced with a cyber-physical system that allowed the manufacturer to store data and utilize the resources with precision. At the beginning of the 21st century, the world faced problems with natural resources, and industries were predicted to be closed without resources. Renewable energy and the idea of utilizing the energy with precision came to the surface as a solution. People started to find a way and industries adopted technologies to ensure resource allocation. Intelligent sensors, actuators, 3d printers, self-learning robots, advanced materials, and augmented reality became a tool for the physical act of manufacturing. In search of precision, people learned to use the data as a tool for prediction and a new horizon was on the corner.
What is the Cyber-physical System: A cyber-physical system is a combination of the physical and virtual worlds. Integration of physical and computation processes improved manufacturing and enabled the machines to optimize self-optimize. A typical example can be given in this regard.
This figure shows that wireless and web-enabled sensors are already used for process control. It was named as AUTOWARP concept and was introduced by a university in Germany, one of the early adopters of industrial revolution 4.0.
The Internet of Things is another core concept introduced by the 4th IR that has enabled the cooperation of smart things and objects of the neighborhood to achieve the same goal. Thus, the Idea of a smart factory came to the surface.
The Textile and apparel industry has been in this for some time now, the renowned fashion houses have introduced 3D trial houses that enable users to trial at home by giving their body measurements. This kind of technology has already taken over older ones.
Pros of 4th Industrial Revolution:
Increased Productivity is one of the essential features provided by the 4th IR. The manufacturing process has long been automatic with sensors, ensuring production quality. It has enabled the proper usage of limited resources as well as the usage of renewable energy. Automation has brought the pace among the industries and the intelligent “objects” has taken over the operators’ job. Flawless production is ensured through data. People have been predicting that this revolution will bring a new surface of reality into the AI-supported world.
Scattered pieces of 4th IR and a new Industry 5.0:
Though the problems had been addressed ideally, sustainability had yet to reach its peak. 4th industrial revolution had a major flaw that harmed human sustainability, AI replaced humans to make maximum profits. The job sector was massacred and the industrialists profited through moral degradations.
Industry 5.0 introduced the New Idea of sustainability. The term that is now has taken over the industry of textile and apparel.
What is Sustainability?
It is an ability to maintain and support a process continuously over time. In terms of the Textile and apparel industry, it means reducing pollution while allocating resources properly and protecting human rights.
There is a total of three pillars of sustainability, they are Economic sustainability, Environmental sustainability, and social sustainability.
Economic Sustainability and 4th IR:
Economic sustainability is a term attached to limited natural resources. Resources aren’t abundant in the 21st century, and we must allocate them according to necessity. The industries adopted the AI-integrated automatic process to analyze data to provide precision in the production process. From the beginning of the process, design creating to pattern and marker making, from yarn manufacturing to processed fabric, and lastly, the ready-made apparel, every step has been through process optimization to ensure cost-effectiveness and proper allocation. This optimization was possible for cyber-physical systems, aka CPS. This perspective on responsibility promotes businesses to prioritize long-term benefits alongside immediate returns while striving to achieve inclusive and environmentally sustainable objectives. This encompasses many potential practices, including reducing emissions, minimizing energy consumption, procuring products from fair-trade organizations, and adopting proper waste disposal methods with a reduced carbon footprint. These actions contribute to the pursuit of sustainability.
4th IR covered the economic sustainability to ensure a long run business with explicit material and the perfect combination of mind and machine.
Environmental Sustainability and 4th IR:
The term itself introduces the concept behind it. Environmental sustainability includes the life support system. The textile industry is one of the leading polluting industries in this world. Fast fashion has paced up pollution through the mass production of clothing. Every step of production needs water, actively or passively. This has led to the pollution of water across the globe. The soil had been polluted because the chemicals used in textiles and lands had lost fertility.
To address this problem, the 4th industrial revolution included ETP plants and other sustainable options and is trying to find organic ways. Archroma has developed a way to produce organic colors. These kinds of steps were easier because of the CPS.
4th industrial revolution accompanied this sustainability and still is working towards a sustainable environment.
Social Sustainability and 4th IR:
Social sustainability is a term that refers to the human effects of the economic system. It includes eradicating hunger, and poverty, improving lifestyle, etc.
4th industrial revolution harmed this aspect of sustainability as the AI took the job opportunities and humans were jobless, raising the poverty in the countries. Thus the 4th IR was categorized as a technology-driven industrial revolution.
Concept of 5th IR:
Industry 5.0 represents a forward-thinking concept that envisions the future of the manufacturing sector as a human-centric, sustainable, and resilient system. It offers a progressive vision of industry development. The Industry 5.0 paradigm emphasizes the importance of agility and resiliency in systems by applying adaptable and flexible technologies. Moreover, it endeavors to take the lead in promoting sustainability, respecting planetary boundaries, and fostering talent and diversity.
Industry 5.0 acknowledges the influential role of the industrial sector in accomplishing societal objectives that extend beyond employment and economic growth. It aims to transform production practices to align with the limits of our planet while prioritizing the well-being of industry workers as the central focus of the production process. By doing so, Industry 5.0 strives to establish a resilient foundation for prosperity.
Difference between 4th and 5th IR:
Industry 4.0 acknowledges and tackles the challenges of human-centricity, sustainability, and resilience with a consequential perspective guided by a distinct technological approach. In contrast, Industry 5.0 represents a significant paradigm shift, moving away from emphasizing individual technologies and adopting a systemic approach. By adopting this approach, the industry is empowered to pursue broader societal objectives beyond employment and economic growth while prioritizing the well-being of industry workers as the central focus of the production process. This fundamental distinction helps clarify why Industry 5.0 is recognized as a distinct form of the Industrial Revolution compared to previous industrial revolutions.
Some may mistake the 5th industrial revolution as a chronological advancement after the 4th IR, but the fact is that the 4th IR and 5th IR co-exist and are just a part of each other. 4th IR teaches you how to integrate the technology and 5th IR integrates the 4th IR with social values and human life.
Traditionally, an Industrial Revolution is propelled by groundbreaking technological advancements that bring about profound transformations in the functioning of industries. These changes have far-reaching economic and societal implications, encompassing both intended and desirable outcomes and unintended and undesirable consequences. While Industry 4.0 remains predominantly driven by technology, Industry 5.0 takes a value-driven approach. The former relies on the latter as a reminder of essential societal needs, values, and responsibilities as ultimate goals. Conversely, the latter necessitates the former for technological advancements and solutions.
Impact of 5th IR on the industries:
5th IR is a new kind of revolution that is value-centric. The impact of this revolution is that this revolution will direct the profit toward human-valued companies and preach the idea that technological advancements and social trends need to co-exist.
Profit maximization while improving society is also a concept introduced by this revolution. Fulfilling all the aspects of sustainability can ensure a thriving industry and societal reformation. Thus Human life can be improved while profiting from the AI-integrated industry. Ultimately, the industries are formed to thrive in the economy for human welfare. Digitalization is a must-choice these days as industries have no other option. They must adopt the technologies but also protect social sustainability to survive as human beings. Initial cost management is one of the problems of the 4th IR that can be reduced in the long term. Adoption is the way to survive in this 21st century. So adapt the way which will lead you to the long run business profit.